C++ and C# are both OOP based languages. You might think is C# similar to C++, but reality is they are very different. Where C++ is a compiled language, while C# is an interpreted language. C++ converts code into machine language before execution, while C# converts code into intermediate language (IL) which is then interpreted by the .NET Framework.
On a wider spectrum, the key difference between C++ and C# are: C++ is known as low-level language, is powerful, and gives more control over the hardware well-suited for developing high-performance applications. But harder to master.
C# is a high-level dynamically typed language with more accessibility, and easy learning curve providing higher level of abstraction. It is a great choice for cross-platform developing.
Let’s explore the differences between C++ and C#, have a look at their strengths and weaknesses to help you choose the best language for next project.
C# vs C++
C# (pronounced “C sharp”), is a general-purpose, contemporary, and OOP language. Created by Microsoft as a component of the .NET program. C++ is focused on creating high-performance applications. It was created as extension of the C programming language conquering its shortcomings. Biggest benefit of C++ is its platform independent, meaning regardless of the OS or system it runs smoothly because of converting the code into machine language.
What is the difference between C++ and C#
Now that we know how the two differ from each other. Let us have a deeper look on key differences.
Principles of C++ Development
Object is the base of OOP programming. In programming languages that are object based, like C++ the data and data-operating functions are grouped together which is called an object.
A class is a blueprint for an object. Meaning, it describes how the what the class objects will be made of, how they will perform, and how they will be connected.
Abstraction is one of the central part of OOP structure. Hiding unnecessary or sensitive info and only revealing important information without showing the specifics is called abstraction.
Encapsulation is limiting access, like password protecting something. OOP based languages have the feature of putting only relevant data and functions together which we know as encapsulation.
Inheriting features from a parent coverts to high reusability of the code in OOP, which is its most prominent feature. In its essence inheritance is creating new classes from the base existing class.
Another important factor of OOP, the ability of using a function (or operator) in various ways is called polymorphism.
Overloading and polymorphism overlap, but basic difference is when an existing function (or operator) is applied on new data type its overloading.
Principles of C# Development
Single Responsibility Principle (SRP)
C# features that if a class has two reasons to change its functionality should be separated into two classes, where each class will have one responsibility, a.k.a. the SRP principle.
Open Closed Principle (OCP)
OpenClosed Principle argues that all entities like (classes, modules, functions, etc.) should be open for extension but closed for modification. Meaning their behavior can be extended without but cannot be affect its source code.
Liskov Substitution Principle (LSP)
This principle states if a function that employes pointers or references to any base class it must be able to access objects from derived from that class without the base class being aware of it.
Interface Segregation Principle (ISP)
The ISP principle states no class or piece of code should be reliant on a method which it does not use. ISP is one of the five SOLID principles of object-oriented programming design.
Dependency Inversion Principle (DIP)
DIP principle is a loosely coupled module used in OOP architecture. It states that high-level modules should not rely on low-level modules and abstraction should be used in both cases.
Pros and cons of C++
The following is a list of advantages and disadvantages of C++ and C# respectively.
Pros and cons of C#
Both, C++ and C# are powerful programming languages having their own strengths and weaknesses. Similarly c# vs c++ syntax are also different with C# having an easy syntax compared to C++.
While, C++ is a compiled language offering more control over memory management and performance, C# on the other hand is an interpreted language that is easier to learn and use. C++ is often used for high-performance applications that prefer speed with lower load on the system such as games and graphics, while C# is often used for web development, cross platform development, and business applications. Ultimately, the best language for a particular project depends on the specific requirements of the project.